Epilepsy is a chronic dynamic medical problem requiring long-term treatment which is a common and serious neurological disorder worldwide, with an estimated prevalence rate of 0.5-1% in the general population. Cognition, defined as the ability to retain, process, and respond to information, depends on many physical and mental factors. It involves the ability to solve problems, communicate, memorize, and focus attention. Patients with epilepsy face a wide range of difficulties in cognition, psychiatric status, and social functioning, and thus have limitations in school, social situations, employment, and independent living but also for myriad comorbid health conditions. Studies have identified risk factors of cognitive impairments in patients with epilepsy. Etiology, seizure types, seizure frequency, duration of epilepsy, age at onset, and antiepileptic drug use may all contribute to cognitive decline The goal of cognitive rehabilitation is to restore patients’ ability to deal with routine activities of daily lives such as reinforcing, strengthening, or reestablishing previously learned patterns of behavior; establishing new patterns of cognitive activity through compensatory cognitive mechanisms for impaired neurologic systems; establishing new patterns of activity through external compensatory mechanisms such as personal or those environmental structuring and support; and enabling patients to adapt to their cognitive disability, even though it may not be possible to directly modify or compensate for cognitive impairments, in order to improve their overall level of functioning and quality of life.
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