Exponential rise in aging population in China projects that the country will be facing an upsurge in the dementia population in next few decades. It is pertinent to improve public knowledge through better understanding of the epidemiology, impact on financial and health system and family, and intervention strategies. This review was conducted to collect Chinese journal publications, government policies, and project documents of Alzheimer’s or dementia over past two decades, as well as to consult Chinese psychiatrists and neurologists with expertise in the field. The results showed that the emerging prevalence of dementia in China is rising far faster than thought, and it has been imposing tremendous challenge to the health and financial system, as well as the community and family members. However, the public awareness is poor, basic and clinical researches are paucity, national supportive strategies are lacking, and the availability of social benefit is inadequate.