Majority of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites as well as environmental allergens invades or enters the host through mucosal surfaces. The mucosal immune system has evolved to prevent colonization and invasion by harmful pathogens, therefore, stimulation of mucosal defences is very important for controlling infection and preventing diseases. The development of mucosal vaccines targeted to induce protective immunity against a broad range of pathogens that can be acquired through mucosal or non-mucosal routes could have positive public health benefits. Mucosal immunization has been demonstrated to efficiently elicit humoral and cellular responses both locally and systemically, as observed in animal models and in humans. Among the mucosal routes, the nasal route of immunization is very efficient at inducing humoral and cellular immune responses.