Biotechnology, during he last two decades has emerged as a technological revolution around the world. It has influenced almost every sector of industrial activity chemical feedstock, food, feed, environment, energy and health care. In general, commercial applications of bio technology developments is directly driven by social and environmental needs, besides economic forces. Also, it requires an understanding and application of a range of basic scientific and engineering disciplines, including microbiology, biochemistry, physics, chemistry, chemical and bioprocess engineering, besides molecular biology and genetics. Other desirable features of industrial biotechnology include their dependence on renewable feedstock, low energy consumption and environmentally favourable processing that can potentially lead to sustainable development.
Although biological processes involving living sells and their constituents have been used by mankind over along history, real break though has emerged with developments in both biological and engineering sciences, during the last fifty years.
Enzymes are the key players in biological activities. All chemical reactions occurring in living cells (for breakdown of nutrients and synthesis of cellular constituents) are catalysed by their group of molecules enzymes. These are naturally evolved biocatalysts that are designed to perform their function in an efficient manner, and still providing a precise and suitable control mechanism to the cell for survival under range of environmental conditions.
In recent years, enzymes have found numerous applications in the flood, pharmaceutical, diagnostic an chemical processing industries. The trend for their application in almost every sector is on increase. Based on the knowledge of the behaviour of enzymes, a number of unfavourable perceptions associated with the use of enzymes as industrial catalysts have been overcome, leading to the emergence of many new application areas