Estradiol is a sex steroid hormone involved in central nervous system organization and activation. Estradiol carries out its actions by activating estrogen receptors (ERs), of which there are two classes, ERα and ERβ. In the brain both ERs are expressed within the nucleus and cytoplasm, as well as localized to the plasma membrane of neurons and astrocytes. Moreover, evidence suggests that other ER-like membrane receptors (e.g. GPR30, ER-X, mGq-ER) can also become activated upon estradiol binding.
Citation: Kisler K, Chow RH, Dominguez R (2013) Fluorescently-Labeled Estradiol Internalization and Membrane Trafficking in Live N-38 Neuronal Cells Visualized with Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy. J Steroids Hormon Sci S12:002 doi: 10.4172/2157-7536.S12-002