Diversity and its measures is a long-standing and widely explored concept in ecology, physics, economics, and sociology, among others. In ecology, the concept of diversity is tightly connected with the idea of a “healthy” community and of conservation. During the last sixty years a deluge of different indices has been developed to represent diversity of ecological communities . Diversity within a community of species, or between different communities, is affected by the phylogenetic relations among species. Intuition suggests that of two communities composed by the same number and abundance of species, the community composed of more distantly related species is more diverse since distantly related species are likely to exhibit a greater number of unique features.