Dalbergia melanoxylon is an important timber species used for the manufacturing of musical instruments and decorative objects such as carvings. The extent of pre-dispersal seed predation variation among D. melanoxylon provenances for seed harvested after maturity at different collection dates was investigated. Provenance variation in seed morphological traits in terms of seed length, width, number of seeds/pod and 100 seed weight were also examined. The effect of provenance and seed collection date was significant (p<0.001) for seed predation and seed viability. Madale provenance had the highest seed predation of 42.52% while Mkundi provenance had significant lowest seed predation of 31.54% which was marked with significant high seed viability and germination 71.92% and 36.62% respectively. Optimal seed germination 43.14% was achieved for seeds collected 8 weeks after peak maturity which had 37.93% of seed predation. The highest seed predation was 47.13% for seeds collected 20 weeks after peak of fruit maturity. Provenance variation in seed morphological traits also revealed that Mkundi provenance had significant high pod length 4.53 cm, pod width 1.47cm and 100 seed weight 64.25g. Correlation analysis revealed highly significant positive correlation between pod width with seed viability and seed weight with seed germination. Provenance with low seed predation and good morphological traits should be used as seed source and seed collection date should be between 4 to 12 weeks after peak maturity to obtain the desired quality seeds of D.