Serum MMP-9, TIMP-1, and MMP-9/TIMP-1 could be considered as non-invasive markers of airway remodelling that can bypass biopsy sampling. Serum sample is easily handled and not subjected to technical error as sputum or BAL fluid.
Citation: El-Moneum Hassan NA, Mohamed-Hussein AAT, Mohammed EF, El- Moneum Mohamed OA, Mohamed HO, et al. (2015) Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) as Non-Invasive Biomarkers of Remodelling in Asthma. J Pulm Respir Med 5:266.