The extract of sea anemone Gyrostoma helianthus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) has been reported as a source of neuroactive compounds. The current study was designed to explore biogenic monoamine effects of sea anemone crude extract in relation to histopathological changes in brain areas and plasma glutathione shuttling. Mouse bioassays were used to determine the dose response curve and behavioral neurotoxicity. Loss of balance, opaque eyes, tonic convulsions, paralysis, muscle flexing, and exophthalmia were the major behavioral changes observed. The LD50 in mice was identified as 29 mg/kg body weight after IP injection, which is calculated to be 20.3 mg/kg body weight in rats using a conversion table. Serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine were significantly increased in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and pons plus medulla oblongata in rats in our 3-day study after a single IP injection of ½ LD50 of the crude extract. The greatest increases in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine were attained in the cerebral cortex. Cells examined in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus showed necrosis, pyknosis, focal gliosis, and congestion of cerebral blood vessels as well as focal cerebral and hippocampus hemorrhage. At the tested dose, the extract caused significant decreases in plasma glutathione and G-reductase, while G-transferase levels were increased.
Citation: Al-Hazmi MA, Gomma MN, Waggas AS, Rawi SM (2015) Brain Biogenic Monoamines in Relation to Brain Histopathology and Plasma Glutathione Shuttle in Rat after Exposure to Sea Anemone Gyrostoma helianthus Extract. J Bioequiv Availab 7:005-011.