Congenital malformations of the mitral valve may be encountered in isolation or in association with other congenital heart defects. Each level of the mitral valve complex may be affected, according to the embryological development, explaining the fact that these lesions are sometimes associated with each other. As a perfect preoperative assessment is of importance, good knowledge of both normal and abnormal anatomy is required in order to guide the surgeon accurately. This review presents the different embryological, anatomical and echocardiographic aspects of the congenital mitral anomalies.
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