alexa Carbon-dioxide Storage in Geological Media Kerim Aydiner*

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Carbon-dioxide Storage in Geological Media Kerim Aydiner*

Each day more CO2 is discharged into atmosphere and the projections do not refer to the considerable decreases for the emissions in the near future, as the fossil fuel have been expected to remain the main energy resource for its approximately 150 years of life even by the more conservative estimations. This case leads to two alternatives as i) accomplishing lower carbon emissions or ii) switching to cleaner energy resources not emitting CO2. However, currently these two alternatives are far from the reality since there is any successful solution by each of these alternatives. So the most promising solution is to capture, sequester and store CO2 in a sink area or media. CO2 can be stored in geological formations either under the ocean floor or in the terrestrial areas. Storage under the ocean floor does not be seen as applicable since the transport and the storage processes are extremely costly and difficult. In the terrestrial areas CO2 can be stored in low rank coal deposits, saline aquifers depleted oil reservoirs and deep massive rock masses. In these media storage is performed basically as the injection of CO2 in a supercritical fluid form. The success of these type in-situ geological storage methods is dependent on an impermeable layer preventing upright movement of gas. Otherwise, as a result of the upright movement, it transforms again its gas form. As a geological storage alternative the mineral carbonation method has been considered as a promising method in CO2 storage. After the storage process CO2 is transformed into different minerals. The method can principally be considered as a dissolution process and as a result of the chemical reactions between CO2 and the minerals containing Mg and Ca, geologically stable and environmentally safe carbonate minerals (calcite and magnesite) are formed. The method can be applied as in-situ and ex-situ. One of a couple of pioneering work (CarbFix Project) have been conducted at Iceland. As an in-situ storage process CO2 charged water is injected deep into basalt rock. However, in-situ processes has a basic disadvantage as the distribution of CO2 in whole body of rock underground is difficult and requires extensive logging. (

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