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Department of Psychology
University of Gothenburg
Clinical Assistant Professor
Department of Neurosurgery
John F. Bebawy
Associate Professor, Program Director
Department of Anesthesiology & Neurological Surgery
Department of Neurosciences
National Neuroscience Institute of Singapore
Journal of Brain Research is a peer reviewed, open access journal considering research on all aspects of Neuroscience, Neurodegenerative diseases, Experimental neurology, Functional neurology, Traumatic Brain injury, surgical neurology, Neurological rehabilitation, Neurotoxicology, Neuropharmacology, Neuronal plasticity and Behaviour, clinical neurology, Brain development and Cell differentiation. The Journal aims to provide a platform for the exchange of scientific information addressing research topics in the field of Brain and Neurological sciences.
Journal of Brain Research accepts original manuscripts in the form of research articles, review articles, Clinical reviews, commentaries, case reports, perspectives and short communications encompassing all aspects of Neurological sciences.
This peer reviewed journal includes following topics but are not limited to: Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Neurodegenerative disorders, Neurosurgery, Behavioural plasticity, Developmental neurobiology, Aging and memory loss, Neurophysiology, Cerebral ischemia, Neuroinflammation, synaptic plasticity, Taurmatic Brain Injury, Spinal cord injury, Clinical neuroscience, Neuroimaging, cognitive neuroscience, Neuropsychopharmacology, Neuropathology. Contributions across the globe from all professions encompassing Researchers, Clinical Practitioner’s, Doctors and Students are therefore encouraged.
The editorial office of the journal promises a peer review process for the submitted manuscripts for the quality of publishing. All the manuscripts published by Journal of Brain Research are available freely online immediately after publication without any subscription charges or registration.
Brain is the three pound organ of the nervous system comprised of cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. Brain and spinal cord constitute the central nervous system where as spinal nerves and cranial nerves that branch of from spinal cord and brain constitute Peripheral nervous system functions in controlling digestion, breathing, secretion of hormones, heart rate.
Brain controls the functions of body by receiving messages through five senses of the body, processes and relays the information accordingly. Brain controls body movements, speech, thoughts and controls the functions of organs within the system. Study of Brain and related components, functions comprise the aspects of Brain neurology.
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Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research, Journal of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Brain and Neurology, Brain: a journal of neurology, JAMA Brain, Journal of Brain, Journal of Clinical Neurology, Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Nervous system is composed of billions of nerve cells, which are the principle functional components of the nervous system that regulate, coordinate and control the mechanisms for communicating to the outside world and for controlling internal mechanisms. Nervous system processes the information received and triggers reactions such as responding to the external stimuli. Nerve cells receive and transfer information for appropriate functioning of the Nervous system by interpreting and responding to stimuli.
Nervous system comprises of brain, spinal cord, sensory organs and all the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Brain and spinal cord constitute Central nervous system and acts as the controlling centre where information is interpreted processed and triggers are sent to perform a particular action/function. Central nervous system and Peripheral Nervous system both regulate voluntary and involuntary functions where the signals are processed by the Brain.
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Advances in Neurology, Journal of Central Nervous System Disease, Nervous System, Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System, Research Journal of Nervous System, Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, Diseases of the Nervous System, Child's Nervous System, Autonomic Neuroscience, Journal of clinical neurophysiology, Brain and Nervous System Current Research.
Neuroscience is the field of medicine that studies the functioning of nervous system. It is an interdisciplinary science that deals with anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology of neurons and neuronal circuits. Neuroscience is the medical field that studies on understanding structure, function, development and its impact on behaviour and cognitive functions. It also throws light on the underlying cellular mechanisms involved in neurodevelopmental disorders. With the cutting edge technology scope of Neuroscience has expanded and resulted in several branches of study such as Behavioral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, clinical neuroscience, computational neuroscience, molecular neuroscience, Developmental neuroscience, Neurolinguistics, Neuroinformatics etc.
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The Journal of Neuroscience, Neuroscience, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Brain Research, Progress in Neurobiology, International Journal of Neuroscience, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, Journal of Neuroscience Research, Experimental Neurology, Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Journal of Integrative Neuroscience.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive structural and functional loss of neurons, including neuronal death. Neuronal cells does not replace as they cannot replicate resulting in progressive loss of structure and function resulting in brain damage. Few of the noted neurodegenerative disorders among the several are Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s Diseases, Huntington’s disease, etc.
Alzheimer’s is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory loss, difficulty in speech, interference and inability to do day to day activities. As it is a progressive disorder with time it gets worsened and brain gets damaged due to neuronal cell death. In Alzheimer’s synaptic transmissions do not occur to transmit the signals due to the build-up of protein plaques called beta amyloid. It is the most common type of dementia, of about 60-80% of dementia is occurred by Alzheimer’s disease.
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Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Journal of Alzheimers Disease and Parkinsonism , Alzheimer's & Dementia, Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders , The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease, Current Alzheimer Research , Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, Advances in Alzheimer's Disease, Journal of Alzheimer's & Neurodegenerative Diseases, Alzheimers Disease and Related Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease Research Journal , Dementia & Alzheimer’s Disease Journal, American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias.
Parkinson’s is a progressive neurological disease with the neuronal death. As time progresses, it gets worsened. Due to decreased levels of Dopamine it results in tremor- involuntary shaking of certain body parts, stiffness of the muscles and slow movement. Although there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, treatment can better the symptoms and enhance the quality of life.
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Parkinsons Disease, Parkinsonism & Related Disorders , Journal of Parkinson's Disease, Journal of Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease, npj Parkinson's Disease, Advances in Parkinson's Disease, Open Journal of Parkinson's Disease and Treatment.
Huntington’s is a genetic disorder that results in the progressive neuronal cell death in the brain. It is associated with movement disorders involving impairment in voluntary movements which shows profound effect on performing daily activities, ability to work etc. Cognitive disorders involving insomnia, Fatigue, sadness, frequent thought of death and suicide. Psychiatric disorders include experiencing bipolar disorder, Mania etc.
As Huntington’s is a genetic disorder, people with known family history can prevent passing the gene to next generations by consulting genetic counsellors and opting for alternative methods of in vitro fertilization, where the embryos that are tested negative are implanted in to the mothers uterus.
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Journal of Huntingtons Disease, Huntington disease, Neurology Research International, Journal of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Neurology, Neurology, Brain and Neurology, Journal of Clinical Neurology, Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience, JAMA Brain
Developmental neurobiology deals with the study of factors impacting neurological and Psychiatric disorders. Developmental neurobiology encompasses the study and understanding of different stages of neural development ranging from neuronal induction, circuit formation and plasticity and all aspects of neuronal development. Neuronal induction, circuit formation are studied in the model species.
Related Journals of Developmental Neurobiology Science
Developmental Neurobiology, International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience , Cellular and Developmental Neurobiology, Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Progress in Neurobiology, Molecular Neurobiology, Neurobiology of Aging, Current opinion in Neurobiology, Journal of Neurobiology.
With the technological advancements, field of neuroimaging has seen advances in medical diagnosis and treatment in neurological sciences. Neuroimaging is non-invasive method of medical diagnosis, where images of the brain are produced by employing techniques without the requirement of surgery. Common techniques employed in neuroimaging are computerized tomography (CT), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) these enable structural and functional visualization of the brain.
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NeuroImage, Journal of Neuroimaging, Journal of Neuroimaging in Psychiatry & Neurology, Journal of Neuroinformatics and Neuroimaging, The Open Neuroimaging Journal, Journal of Neuroimaging.
Neuroradiology is the sub branch of radiology where in the radio imaging techniques are employed for diagnosis and to understand the structural and functional abnormalities in the regions of Central nervous system i.e, Brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system, head, neck and spine using neuroimaging techniques. Imaging techniques include CT scan, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Related Journals of Neuroradiology
Journal of Neuroradiology, Neuroradiology, American Journal of Neuroradiology, Journal of Pediatric Neuroradiology, The Open Neuroimaging Journal, Journal of Neuroimaging, Journal of Neuroimaging in Psychiatry & Neurology, NeuroImage, Journal of Neuroimaging, Journal of Neuroinformatics and Neuroimaging.
Neuropathology is the branch of medicine that deals with the study of nervous system diseases. Study on the tissue biopsies or whole body autopsies. Neuropathologists analyse the tissue samples of brain, spinal cord to diagnose the disease. Neuropathology test epidermal nerve fiber testing is employed for the biopsy process to be less invasive where punch skin biopsy is taken to identify small fiber neuropathies with analysis of skin nerve fibers.
Related Journals of Neuropathology
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, Neuropathology, Brain Pathology, Acta Neuropathologica, Molecular and Chemical Neuropathology, International Journal of Neuropathology, Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, Advances in Experimental Neuropathology, Journal of Neurology and Experimental Neural Science.
Pediatric Neurology is the branch of medicine that deals with diagnosis and management of diseases of nervous system in neonates, infants and children. Diseases and nervous system disorders that encompass child neurology are spinal cord, brain, autonomous nervous system, peripheral nervous system, blood vessels and muscles. Most common diseases encountered by Pediatric neurologists are congenital birth defects affecting the brain and spinal cord, childhood epilepsy, genetic diseases of the nervous system, intellectual disability, Autism spectrum disorders etc.
Related Journals of Neuro Pediatrics
Pediatric Neurology, European Journal of Paediatric Neurology , Journal of Pediatric Neurology and Medicine, Journal of Child Neurology, European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, Journal of Pediatric Neurology, Pediatric Neurosurgery, Pediatric Neurology Briefs, JSM Pediatric Neurology, Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, Journal of Child Neurology, Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Neuroinflammation is the inflammation associated with the nervous system. Inflammation is triggered to ward of the injurious stimulus in the central nervous system and to initiate healing process to protect the cells and the function of the brain. Microglial cells are the innate immune cells that respond to the cues such as infections, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, spinal cord injury, autoimmunity etc. Chronic neuroinflammation considered as cause for neurodegenerative diseases which results in the sustained activation of glial cells and recruitment of immune cells to the brain. Whereas acute neuroinflammation is followed by injury to central nervous system characterized by endothelial cell activation, tissue edema and platelet deposition.
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Journal of Neuroinflammation, Neurology Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation, Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation
Normal aging correlates with the slowdown of bodies and brain with memory related problems, while intelligence remaining stable. Memory loss relates to set of brain symptoms that are associated with brain disorders. People diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment are at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.
Related Journals of Aging and memory loss
Journal of Aging and Health, Neurobiology of Aging, Aging Cell, Aging, Research on Aging, Experimental Aging Research, Psychology and Aging, Aging and Mental Health, Journal of Aging and Social Policy, Clinical interventions in Aging, Drugs and Aging, Journal of Women and Aging.
Neurovascular injury is defined as damage that occurs to major blood vessels supplying brain, brainstem and upper spinal cord including the vertebral, basilar, and carotid arteries. These blood vessels are located both extra cranial and intracranial. Injuries to these blood vessels can occur in both the locations. Few of the ways the blood vessels injured are by arterial dissection, thrombosis, pseudoaneurysm, fistula formation. Neurovascular injuries can occur either spontaneously or followed by sustained trauma or injury to head and neck. Neurovascular injuries are asymptomatic and hence accurate prognosis and diagnosis is recommended to the patients who had head and neck injury, unexplained neurologic abnormalities, arterial bleeding etc. Neurovascular injuries are diagnosed by employing CT angiogram, cerebral angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
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Current Neurovascular Research, Neurovascular Diseases, Neurovascular Imaging, Neurovascular & Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurovascular surgery, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases.
Traumatic Brain injury also called as intracranial injury is the injury caused due to external mechanical force resulting in permanent or temporary impairment of cognitive, physical functions. Based on the severity of the injury symptoms alter with mild to severe alteration in cognitive, social, emotional, behavioural, physical symptoms. Second injury is caused after the primary resulting in alteration of cerebral blood flow and pressure within the skull. Diagnosis of TBI is done through CT scan, MRI.
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Brain Injury, Traumatic Brain Injury, Brain Injury Rehabilitation, The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, Current Neurovascular Research, Neurovascular Diseases, Neurovascular Imaging, Neurovascular & Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurovascular surgery, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism,Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases.
Brain cognition is an interdisciplinary science that studies to understand the interaction between the brain processes and cognitive function. Cognitive functions include the ability of thinking, language use, perception, memory, creativity and attention. Several branches of psychological studies evolved based on the various cognitive functions.
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Brain and Cognition, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, Cognition, Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, Cognitive Science, Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Brain and Cognition, Behavioral and Brain Functions, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Computation
Cortical interactions between pain and cognitive related brain activity are evaluated. Effect of pain on cognitive functions is measured. Modulations in the brain areas are studied related to the pain. Clinical research in the area of pain and cognitive function elucidates underlying pathophysiology and to improve the therapy.
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Journal of Pain, Journal of Pain Research, Pain Research and Management, Pain Medicine, Clinical Journal of Pain, European Journal of Pain, Molecular Pain, Neurobiology of Pain , Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, Cognitive Science, Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, Brain and Cognition, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, Cognition, Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Brain tumors are the growth of mass of abnormal cells in the brain. Brain tumors can be benign and malignant. Malignant brain tumors spread across the brain and are classified as secondary tumors. Brain tumors are classified into grades 1-4 based on the behaviour, how fast they grow and recurrence after treatment. Symptoms associated with brain tumor are seizures, persistent headaches, drowsiness, vomiting, nausea, memory, behavioural problems, paralysis etc. Types of Brain tumor include gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, germ cell tumors, craniopharyngiomas etc.
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Brain Tumor Pathology, Brain Tumor Rehabilitation, Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, Brain Research, Brain, Brain and Behaviour, Journal of Neurology, The Journal of Neuroscience, Journal of Neurosurgery, Brain and Cognition, Brain and Behavior, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Brain Pathology
Spinal cord injury is the damage caused to the spinal cord that results in functional changes either temporary or permanent. Depending on the severity of spinal cord injury symptoms vary widely which includes loss of sensation, loss of muscle function termed as complete injury. Incomplete injury includes few of the nervous signals are able to travel across the injured area of spinal cord. Symptoms can vary from numbness to paralysis. Spinal cord injuries are caused by physical trauma such as falls, sports injuries, accidents, can also result from infection, insufficient blood flow (ischemic), tumors. Spinal cord injuries are categorized into primary injuries where cell death occurs immediately and biochemical cascade triggers are generated and secondary injuries are followed by inflammation, swelling, ischemic cascade, neurotransmitter imbalances.
Related Journals of Spinal cord injury
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine , Spinal Cord , Journal of Neurotrauma, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases, Neurovascular Diseases, Neurovascular Imaging, Neurovascular & Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurovascular surgery, The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, Current Neurovascular Research, Brain Injury, Traumatic Brain Injury, Brain Injury Rehabilitation.
Neuromuscular disorders affect the nervous system that controls the voluntary muscles. Neuromuscular disorders are characterized by progressive muscle weakness affected by peripheral nervous system comprising of motor and sensory nerves which connect brain and spinal cord to rest of the body. Most of the neuromuscular diseases are genetic. Few of the neuromuscular diseases include
• Multiple sclerosis – Multiple sclerosis occurs when the myelin sheath is damaged which protects the nerve cells resulting in blockage of transmission of neuronal messages from between brain and body. Multiple sclerosis affects brain and spinal cord. Symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis include muscle weakness, numbness, twitches, visual disturbances, cognitive problems.
• Amylotrophic lateral sclerosis is a nervous system disorder that attacks the nerve cells of Brain and Spinal cord inhibiting the transmission of neuronal messages to voluntary muscles. Patients affected with amylotrophic lateral sclerosis have speech problems, trouble in walking and writing. For most of the affected patients death is caused due to respiratory failure.
• Spinal muscular atrophy is a nervous system disorder that attacks the nerve cells of spinal cord. Due to neuronal death, control over the voluntary muscles is lost and muscles begin to weaken affecting walking, swallowing, head and neck control.
Related Journals of Neuromuscular Disorders
Neuromuscular Disorders , Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases , Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease, Degenerative Neurological and Neuromuscular Disease
Cerebrovascular disease is a group of conditions that affect the blood vessels, cerebral circulation of the brain. Cerebrovascular disease is caused due to the damage of the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to the brain resulting in stroke also called as ischemic stroke due to lack of blood supply. Risk factors that are associated with stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes. Hypertension causes atherosclerosis the causative factor for narrowing down of blood vessels in the brain leading to ischemic stroke. Persistent high blood pressure causes tearing of blood vessels resulting in haemorrhagic stroke.
Related Journals of Stroke and Cerebrovascular diseases
Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, International Journal of Cerebrovascular Disease and Stroke, Cerebrovascular Diseases, Chinese Journal of Cerebrovascular Diseases.
Neurosurgery is the branch of medical science that deals with the diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disease which affect nervous system including brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and cerebrovascular system. Symptoms such as back pain leads to neurological associated disorders such as numbness, muscle weakness, loss of bladder and bowel control. These conditions are treated by neurosurgical procedures laminectomy, discectomy etc.
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Journal of Neurosurgery, Journal of Neurosurgery-Spine, Journal of Neurology, World Neurosurgery, British Journal of Neurosurgery, Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences, Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery
Neurons are the functional units of nervous system. Billions of neurons are interconnected with each other to form neuronal circuits. Information is processed through these neuronal networks via axon terminals which interact with dendrites of other neurons in neuronal network by synaptic neurotransmission. When the input signals surpass a certain threshold, neuron sends an action potential and transmits the signal along the axon. Connections in neural circuits are categorized into Divergence circuit where signal output from one neuron to many different neurons. In Convergence circuit output signals from many neurons to single neuron.
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Frontiers in Neural Circuits, Neural Circuits, Neural Systems & Circuits, Journal of Neural Systems Theory and Applications, Neural Computing and Applications, International Journal of Neural Systems
Neural Dynamics is the study of the mechanisms underlying neuronal system activity patterns on time scale i.e. from millisecond to second’s variation. Neural dynamics elucidates the mechanisms of flexibility and information processing in the brains, theoretical understanding of sequence generation. Mathematical and computational modelling based elucidation of neural dynamics, space-time continuous variation of neuronal networks.
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Cognitive Neural Dynamics, Journal of Neural Systems Theory and Applications, Neural Computing and Applications, International Journal of Neural Systems, Neural Systems & Circuits
Neuropsychopharmacology is the multidisciplinary research field involving neuropathology, pharmacodynamics and cognitive functions. Neuropsychopharmacology elucidates the pathways involving the effect of drugs on mind encompassing biochemical processes, neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters-receptors activity underlying the altered function of the brain in diseased conditions. Neuropsychoparmacology studies impact the studies of degenerative disorders, anxiety disorders, and psychotic disorders.
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European Neuropsychopharmacology, International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology and Mental Health, European Neuropsychopharmacology, The Open Neuropsychopharmacology Journal.
Neurotransmission is the process of communication between neuronal cells achieved by synapses through neurotransmitters. Signaling process of neurotransmission involves releases of neurotransmitters chemical messengers from the axon terminal of the neuron called presynaptic neuron. These released neurotransmitters bind to the receptors on dendrites of other neuron called postsynaptic neuron. Few of the neurotransmitters are Acetylcholine, gamma amino butyric acid, Acetylcholine, Dopamine. Neurotransmission is essential for the communication between two neurons and information processing to receive the signals through dendrites and pass on the information through axons.
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Journal of Neural Transmission Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research, Journal of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Brain and Neurology, Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience.
Neocortex is the most complex and evolved organ in the humans comprising many neuronal cell types such as oligodendrocytes and glia accounting 10 billion cells in the human brain that form neuronal connections with other regions of central nervous system. Neocortex is responsible for the cognitive functions, sensation, action, consciousness, spatial reasoning and language.
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Brain and Cognition, Brain and Behavior, NeuroImage, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Brain Pathology, Brain Research, Brain, Brain and Behaviour, Journal of Neurology, The Journal of Neuroscience, Journal of Neurosurgery.