AIDS is a syndrome caused by the HIV virus. It is when a person’s immune system is too weak to fight off many infections, and develops when the HIV infection is very advanced. This is the last stage of HIV infection where the body can no longer defend itself and may develop various diseases, infections and if left untreated, death. There is currently no cure for HIV or AIDS. However, with the right treatment and support, people can live long and healthy lives with HIV.
1.It may cause influenza-like illness, tuberculosis, opportunistic infections and tumors, pneumocystis pneumonia, severe weight loss, Kaposi's sarcoma. The time period usually ranges from 6 months (rarely) to 15+ years. HIV infection passes through a series of steps or stages before it turns into AIDS. These stages of infection as outlined in 1993 by the Centers for Disease Control. Seroconversion illness – this occurs in 1 to 6 weeks after acquiring the infection. The feeling is similar to a bout of flu.
2.Asymptomatic infection – After seroconversion, virus levels are low and replication continues slowly. CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels are normal. This stage has no symptoms and may persist for years together.
3.Persistent generalised lymphadenopathy (PGL) – The lymph nodes in these patients are swollen for three months or longer and not due to any other cause.
4.Symptomatic infection – This stage manifests with symptoms. In addition, there may be opportunistic infections. This collection of symptoms and signs is referred to as the AIDS-related complex (ARC) and is regarded as a prodrome or precursor to AIDS.
Brazil represents the largest number of people living with HIV in Latin America at 47%. Worldwide, it is one of 15 countries which represent 75% of the global number of people living with HIV.Brazil has seen an average of 37,000 new HIV infections per year from 2002 to 2012. It has also seen a rise in new infections, by 11% between 2005 and 2013.Between the beginning of the epidemic in 1980 and June 2012, Brazil registered 656,701 AIDS cases (stage when the disease manifests itself in the patient), according to the most recent Epidemiological Bulletin. In 2011, 38,776 cases of the disease were reported and the AIDS incidence rate in Brazil was 17.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants.
The multipronged approach involves promoting and improving access to HIV testing, and adoption of treatment as prevention combined with the provision of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. Brazil’s Ministry of Health figures state 96% of Brazilians identify condoms as a barrier that can prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV. Antiretroviral treatment coverage (among adults 15 years and older) for Brazil was an estimated 41% in 2013. Brazil has implemented TasP since December 2013, which allows for treatment to be initiated immediately after confirmation of an HIV diagnosis, regardless the CD4 count. The implementation of this new approach is intended to improve the quality of life of people living with HIV, and reduce the likelihood of transmission as a result of viral suppression. Within the last four years, there has been a resurgence of the Brazilian national HIV response. It has demonstrated the efficacy of implementing a combination approach to HIV, which has improved early diagnosis and linkages to treatment and care.