Bullous pemphigoid is an acute or chronic autoimmune skin disease, involving the formation of blisters, more appropriately known as bullae, at the space between the skin layers epidermis and dermis. It is classified as a type II hypersensitivity reaction, with the formation of anti-hemidesmosome antibodies.
In most cases of bullous pemphigoid, no clear precipitating factors are identified. Potential precipitating events that have been reported include exposure to ultraviolet light and radiation therapy. Onset of bullous pemphigoid has also been associated with certain drugs, including furosemide, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, captopril,penicillamine, and antibiotics.
The most common symptom of pemphigoid is blistering that occurs on the arms, legs, abdomen, and mucous membranes. Hives and itching are also common. The blisters have certain characteristics, regardless of where on the body they form: they are often preceded by a red rash, they are large and filled with fluid that is usually clear, but may contain some blood they are thick and do not rupture easily, the skin around the blisters may appear normal or slightly red or dark, ruptured blisters are usually sensitive and painful.
Pemphigoid cannot be cured, but treatments are usually very successful at relieving symptoms. Corticosteroids, either in pill or topical form, will likely be the first treatment your doctor prescribes. These medications reduce inflammation and can help to heal the blisters and relieve itching. However, they can also cause serious side effects, especially from long-term use, so your doctor will take you off of the corticosteroids after the blistering clears up. Another treatment option is to take medication that suppresses your immune system, often in conjunction with the corticosteroids. Immunosuppressants help, but they also put you at risk for other infections. Certain antibiotics, such as tetracycline, may also be prescribed to reduce inflammation and infection.
BP showed a mean incidence of 12 1 new cases per million people per year. Its incidence increased significantly after the age of 70 years, with a maximal value after the age of 90 years. The female/male ratio was 1:3. The age-standardized incidence of BP using the European population as reference was, however, lower, with 6 8 new cases per million people per year, reflecting the ageing of the Swiss population. In contrast, both PV and PF were less frequent. Their combined mean incidence was 0 6 new cases per million people per year. PV shows has an approximately equal prevalence among men and women. Peak incidence 30-60 years of age (i). Mean onset of age is 50 to 60 years (ranges on subtype and can affect persons at all ages). Ethnicity: The disorder tends to affect persons of Mediterranean ancestry but can occur in persons of any ethnicity. Geographic variation is wide, with no special variation within the United States. High prevalence of subtype pemphigus foliaceus in Brazilian rain forest and Columbia.