Burning mouth syndrome is a continuous burning sensation of the mucosa of the mouth which typically involves the tongue, but not until the extension to the lips and oral mucosa. Classically, burning mouth syndrome is accompanied by gustatory disturbances like dysgeusia, parageusia and subjective xerostomia. The pathophysiology is considered as psychogenic illness but however, a neuropathic mechanism for burning mouth syndrome is currently favored.
One review reported overall prevalence ranges of 0.1-14.3% for geographic tongue, 1.3-9.0% for "atrophy tongue" (atrophic glossitis), and 0.0-3.35% for median rhomboid glossitis. Primary treatment can be given with Clonazepam, Topiramate, Olanzapine, Nortriptyline, Doxepin, Hormone replacement therapy, etc. Treatment for secondary treatment includes Adjustment of levothyroxine dosing, oral nystatin, Avoidance of allergens, B vitamin supplementation, and Chewing sorbitol-containing gum to stimulate saliva.