Definition: Chapare hemorrhagic fever (CHHF) is caused by Chapare virus, a single-strand RNA virus of the Arenaviridae family. Chapare virus is certainly zoonotic, or animal-borne. The limited clinical information about CHHF comes from a small, poorly described cluster of hemorrhagic fever cases in rural Bolivia. A single fatal case yielded the only clinical description and blood specimen to date.
Symptoms and Treatment: The symptoms of CHHF, as reported in the only described patient, resemble those of other South American hemorrhagic fevers, such as Argentine HF or Bolivian HF. The incubation period is unknown, but for Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is 6 to 16 days. The CHHF clinical course included: Fever, headache, articulation and muscle pain, vomiting. These symptoms were followed by deterioration with multiple hemorrhagic signs. The only described CHHF patient died 14 days after onset of symptoms. Supportive therapy is important in CHHF. This includes: maintenance of hydration, management of shock, sedation, pain relief, usual precautions for patients with bleeding disorders, transfusions. Use of convalescent plasma therapy for treatment of AHF reduces mortality significantly and anecdotal evidence shows that the antiviral drug ribavirin may also hold promise for treating AHF. Ribavirin has also been considered for preventing development of disease in people exposed to other arenaviruses.
Statistics: Disease statistics in Brazil is gvien as Mice were monitored for 28 days PI with 500 FFU of wtLUJV, wtLASV-Josiah, wtJUNV-XJ13, or inoculation with DMEM as a negative control. As expected, wtJUNV-XJ13 caused uniform neurological signs and lethality by 15 days PI in 2-day-old, but not 14-day-old mice. In contrast and as expected, wtLASV infection resulted in near uniform (90%) lethality in 14-day-old weanling mice, but was non-lethal in 2-day-old newborn mice. Infection was confirmed by the detection of anti-Lujo virus specific antibodies at 28 days post-infection in 3 surviving animals.