The name “chikungunya” derives from a word in the Kimakonde language, meaning “to become contorted”, and describes the stooped appearance of sufferers with joint pain (arthralgia). Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. Aedes aegypti mosquito (also called yellow fever mosquito) is the primary transmission agent of Chikungunya Virus. Presence of stagnated water in and around human inhabitation is one of the main causes of increased aedes mosquito population. This in turn causes a large number of mosquito bites leading to the rapid spread of Chikungunya virus.
Chikungunya typically starts with one or more of the following symptoms - chills, fever, vomiting, nausea, head ache and joint pain. The attack is sudden and sometimes it is accompanied with rashes. Severe joint pain is the main and the most problematic symptom of Chikungunya.
In Brazil, Ae. aegypti is disseminated in all states and widely dispersed in urban areas, while Ae. albopictus is found in several municipalities, except for the states of Sergipe, Acre, Amapa and Roraima. In addition, the total susceptibility of the Brazilian population to CHIKV, combined with other factors, such as the detection of imported cases in travelers since 2010, suggests potential dispersal and establishment of CHIKV throughout the country. The objective of this study was to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the CHIKV in Brazil.