Dust mite allergy is an allergic reaction to tiny bugs that commonly live in house dust. Signs of dust mite allergy include sneezing and runny nose. Many people with dust mite allergy also experience signs of asthma, such as wheezing and difficulty breathing. Dust mites are the close relatives of ticks and spiders and are too small to see without a microscope. Dust mites eat skin cells shed by people and thrive in warm and humid environments. In most homes, bedding, upholstered furniture and carpeting provide an ideal environment for dust mites. Steps to reduce the number of dust mites in your home can often control dust mite allergy. Medications or other treatments may be necessary to relieve symptoms and manage asthma. Dust mite allergy symptoms caused by inflammation of nasal passages include: • Sneezing • Runny nose • Itchy, red or watery eyes • Nasal congestion • Itchy nose, roof of mouth or throat • Postnasal drip • Cough • Facial pressure and pain • Swollen, blue-colored skin under your eyes • In a child, frequent upward rubbing of the nose If your dust mite allergy contributes to asthma, you may also experience: • Difficulty breathing • Chest tightness or pain • An audible whistling or wheezing sound when exhaling • Trouble sleeping caused by shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing • Bouts of coughing or wheezing that are worsened by a respiratory virus such as a cold or the flu A dust mite allergy can range from mild to severe. A mild case of dust mite allergy may cause an occasional runny nose, watery eyes and sneezing. In severe cases, the condition may be ongoing (chronic), resulting in persistent sneezing, cough, congestion, facial pressure or severe asthma attack.
The allergic diseases like hay fever and asthma have increased in the Western world over the past 2–3 decades. Increases in allergic asthma and other atopic disorders in industrialized nations, it is estimated, began in the 1960s and 1970s, with further increases occurring during the 1980s and 1990s, although some suggest that a steady rise in sensitization has been occurring since the 1920s. The number of new cases per year of atopy in developing countries has, in general, remained much lower. Around 15% of adults have mild, localized allergic reactions. Systemic reactions occur in 3% of adults and less than 1% of children. Almost 70%-80% of the general population are allergy to dust mite. Some of the problem might occur in minor magnitude at young age.
The first treatment for controlling dust mite allergy is avoiding dust mites as much as possible. Less exposure to dust mites result in low allergic reactions. It is impossible to eliminate dust mites completely from the environment. You may also need some medications to control symptoms. There are of three types: i. Medication with Allergens: Antihistamines, Corticosteroids, Decongestants, Cromolyn sodium, Leukotriene modifiers. ii. Medication with Therapies: Immunotherapy, Nasal irrigation. iii. Alternative medicine. Allergic Medication: Several medications maybe used to block the action of allergic mediators, or to prevent activation of cells and degranulation processes. These include antihistamines, glucocorticoids, epinephrine, mast cell stabilizers, and antileukotriene agents are common treatments of allergic diseases. Anti-cholinergics, decongestants, and other compounds thought to impair eosinophil chemotaxis, are also commonly used. Epinephrine is important in anaphylaxis. Medication with Therapies: Allergen immunotherapy is useful for environmental allergies, allergies to insect bites, and asthma. Its benefit for food allergies is unclear and thus not recommended. Immunotherapy involves exposing people to larger and larger amounts of allergen in an affect to change the immune system's response. Meta-analyses have found that injections of allergens under the skin is effective in the treatment in allergic rhinitis in children and in asthma. The benefits may last for years after treatment is stopped. It is generally safe and effective for allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, allergic forms of asthma, and stinging insects. Alternative medicine: The evidence also supports the use of sublingual immunotherapy for rhinitis and asthma but it is less strong. In this form the allergen is given under the tongue and people often prefer it to injections. Immunotherapy is not recommended alone treatment for asthma. Enzyme potentiated desensitization (EPD) is not an effective treatment method.