The term heart disease is often interchanged with the term cardiovascular disease. It generally refers to the conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. By controlling high blood pressure, quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy diet and by maintaining low cholesterol levels heart diseases can be prevented.
Diagnosis and symptoms include cardiac catherization, cardiac MRI, picturing the heart, a CT scan, a coronary angiography, stress testing, echocardiography, nuclear heart scan, etc. Treatment for heart valve problems include medications, heart valve surgery and for heart attack medications like clot busters should be administered as soon as possible, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
Death rates due to cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke have declined in both Brazil and the metropolitan region of São Paulo. A linear regression analysis revealed a similar trend for ischemic heart disease and demonstrated a male/female ratio of 1.653 ± 0.001 (r?=?0.228; p?=?0.262) in Brazil and 1.763 ± 0.008 (r?=?0.863; p<0.001) in São Paulo.