Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. It may be benign. If white blood cells are found in addition to red blood cells, then it is a signal of urinary tract infection. Types: Hematuria is of two types 1. Microscopic hematuria - Small amounts of blood can be seen on light microscopy or urinanalysis. 2. Macroscopic hematuria –Gross hematuria Diagnosis: Sometimes the cause of hematuria can be elucidated solely on the basis of the medical history and urine testing, or urinalysis.
Causes Urinary tract infection with bacteria. The vast majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli, with a smaller percentage due toKlebsiella,pneumonia and Staphylococcus saprophyticus , Nephrolithiasis,stones in the kidney, bladder or ureter ,Trauma. Cancer of the kidney, prostate or bladder Other causes includes: Glomerular bleeding: eg: IgA nephropathy ("Berger's disease"), Alport syndrome, thin basement membrane disease ,Sickle cell disease.
Statistics Six hundred (600) consecutive cases were identified from 2006 to 2013 in ten Brazilian reference centres of which 568 (94.7 %) were reported on native kidneys and 32 (5.3 %) were reported on transplanted kidneys. Male to female ratio was 1.24:1. Patients averaged 32.67 ± 15.12 years old (range 4–89; median 32). Hematuria was present in 56.63 % of patients, which was isolated in 27.66 % of these patients.