Hypotension is the medical term for low blood pressure, meaning the body isn't getting enough blood. With this condition, your heart doesn't adequately circulate blood to various regions of the body. The 'normal' blood pressure range is between 90/60 mmHg and 130/80 mmHg, so if you have hypotension, you'll have a blood pressure below 90/60 mmHg. The top number is the systolic value, which indicates how hard the blood pushes when the heart beats. The bottom number is the diastolic value, which indicates how hard the blood pushes between heart beats. Blood pressure can vary throughout the day, but hypotension generally refers to chronic low blood pressure.
Hypospadias results in a urethral opening located below the tip of the bulbous end of the penis (the glans penis). This opening may be located on the glans, along the shaft of the penis, at the pouch that contains the testicles (scrotum), or in the area between the scrotum and the anus (perineum). The farther the opening is from the tip of the glans, the more likely curvature in the penis (chordee) is present.Mild hypospadias results in a downward spray of the urine stream.Common complications of severe hypospadias include undescended testicles and inguinal hernias (i.e., located in the groin). Other complications include upper urinary tract anomalies and backflow of urine from the ureter to the bladder (vesicoureteral reflux).
Treatment involves surgery to reposition the urethral opening and, if necessary, straighten the shaft of the penis.
Hypospadias is much more common in males than in females. In Canada and the United States, the incidence of hypospadias in boys is estimated to be 1:250 or 1:300 live births. In girls, the condition is very rare, estimated at 1:500,000 live births. One troubling phenomenon is the reported doubling of cases of hypospadias in both Europe and North America since the 1970s without any obvious explanation. According to a recent press release from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), data from two surveillance systems monitoring birth defects in the United States show that the rate of hypospadias rose from 36 per 10,000 male births in 1968 to 80 per 10,000 male births in 1993. In addition to the increase in the number of cases reported, the proportion of severe cases has also risen, which means that the numerical increase cannot be explained as the result of better reporting.