Intracranial venous malformations are abnormally enlarged veins in brain. Venous malformations are a type of blood vessel abnormality in the brain or spinal cord.
The aneurysm of the vein of Galen presents a different clinical picture and threat to health according to whether the patient is a neonate, an infant, or an older child. The AVM of the brain encountered in the adult usually presents with hemorrhage or seizures. An unruptured AVM has approximately a 2 to 3% risk of bleeding per year, with about a 1% risk of death per year. The mortality rate of the first hemorrhage is about 10%. Among the survivors, there is about a 6% chance of rebleeding during the 1st year and then approximately a 2 to 3% risk of bleeding per year subsequently. The mortality rate associated with a second hemorrhage is about 13%, and for subsequent hemorrhages the mortality is roughly 20%.
The most important goal AVM treatment is to prevent internal bleeding from rupture, because which can lead to stroke / death. However, seizure control or stabilization of progressive neurological deficits are occasionally treatment goals. Though medication may be prescribed, it does not cure AVMs but medications are used to control pain and seizures. The management options for brain AVMs include observation or various treatment techniques, such as endovascular embolization, microsurgical techniques and stereotactic radiotherapy used alone or in combination with varying degrees of treatment-associated morbidity and mortality.