Pathophysiology: Leptospirosis is a type of bacterial infection spread by animals. It's caused by a strain of bacteria called leptospira. Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects both humans and animals. The early stages of the disease may include high fever, severe headache, muscle pain, chills, redness in the eyes, abdominal pain, jaundice, haemorrhages in skin and mucous membranes (including pulmonary bleeding), vomiting, diarrhoea and a rash. Leptospiral infection in humans causes a range of symptoms, and some infected persons may have no symptoms at all.
Treatment: Effective antibiotics include penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin and Doxycycline. In more severe cases cefotaxime or ceftriaxone should be preferred.Glucose and salt solution infusions may be administered; dialysis is used in serious cases. Elevations of serum potassium are common and if the potassium level gets too high special measures must be taken. Serum phosphorus levels may likewise increase to unacceptable levels due to renal failure.
Statistics: Surveillance identified 326 cases of which 193 (59%) were laboratory-confirmed (133) or probable (60) cases. Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni was isolated from 87% of the cases with positive blood cultures. Most of the cases were adult (mean age 35.9 years [SD 15.9]), and 80% were male. Before admission to hospital, 42% were misdiagnosed as having dengue fever in the outpatient clinic; an outbreak of dengue fever was taking place concurrently.