Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is especially troublesome in hospitals, prisons, and nursing homes, where patients with open wounds, invasive devices, and weakened immune systems are at greater risk of nosocomial infection. The rest of the respiratory tract, open wounds, intravenous catheters and the urinary tract are also potential sites for infection.
Overall, 81 studies were included percentage of all arthroplasty procedures were 1.7% (range: 0.25%-4.4%; 15 studies) and 0.6% (range: 0.1%-23%), respectively. Median SSI rates were 1.3% (range: 0.05%-19%; 22 studies) after knee arthroplasty, and 2.1% (range: 0.05%-28%; 24 studies) after hip arthroplasty. S. aureus SSI rates ranged from 0.2%-2.4% and 0.18%-3.8% for patients undergoing knee and hip arthroplasty, respectively. The percentage of S. aureus SSIs because of MRSA varied widely within each patient category.
Treatment of HA-MRSA frequently involves the use of vancomycin, often in combination with other antibiotics given by IV. CA-MRSA can often be treated on an outpatient basis with specific oral or topical antibiotics, but some serious CA-MRSA infections (for example, pneumonia) often require appropriate antibiotics by IV.
Research suggests that certain probiotic strains may help reduce susceptibility to active infection with MRSA. Reduced diversity and strength of the gut microflora leaves us vulnerable to opportunistic infections, while Lactobacillus species such as paracasei, and L. acidophilus, as well as Bifidobacteria animalis subsp lactis have been seen to offer a degree of protection against MRSA.