Bibliographical research was carried out from Pubmed Medline, MDConsult, HighWire, LILACS, and direct research over the past 10 years with the following keywords: Mycoplasma pneumoniae, pneumonia, and childhood. Fifty-four articles were selected. Mycoplasma pneumoniae has a high incidence in childhood. Clinical presentation includes respiratory and extra-respiratory symptoms. Mycoplasma pneumoniae lung infection can be confused with viral or bacterial pneumonia and is unresponsive to beta-lactams. In addition, co-infections have been reported.