Non-pathogenic intestinal protozoa are single-celled parasites commonly found in the intestinal tract but never associated with illness Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, E. polecki, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba buetschlii are generally considered nonpathogenic and reside in the large intestine of the human host. Many intestinal protozoa parasites inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of humans. It was found that 28.1% (100/356) of the sampled population were infected with protozoans. Females showed a higher infection rate (29.7%; 56/182) than males (26.4%; 46/174) and there was a significantly (P < 0.001) higher prevalence in rural areas(38.7%; 55/142) than in urban areas (21.0%; 45/214). The 6 to 12 years age group had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher infection rate (42.9%; 30/70).
Asymptomatic human infections are usually diagnosed by finding cysts shed in the stool. Various flotation or sedimentation procedures have been developed to recover the cysts from fecal matter and stains help to visualize the isolated cysts for microscopic examination. In symptomatic infections, the motile form can often be seen in fresh feces. Many intestinal protozoa parasites inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of humans. However, majority of them are non-pathogenic commensals or only result in mild disease while a few of them such as Cryptosporidium parvum (CP), Entamoeba histolytica (EH) and Giardia lamblia (GL) are pathogenic and have been associated with human gastrointestinal disorders worldwide among children and adults alike