Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate gram-negative intracellular bacterium. Cattle, sheep, and goats are the primary reservoirs which were infected. Transmission to humans occurs primarily through inhalation of aerosols from contaminated soil or animal waste. Other modes of transmission include tick bites, ingestion of unpasteurized milk or dairy products, and human-to-human transmission etc.
Although specific antimicrobial therapy is indicated, most patients improve spontaneously. However, when Q fever is diagnosed, the administration of antibiotics is appropriate to prevent progression to chronic disease, which is far more resistant to treatment. Patients should avoid ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products as well.
Statistics in Belgium include Twelve out 16 patients (75%) were males and the age varied from four to 67 years old with a median of 43.5 years old. Three cases (18.8%) occurred in children. The fever median duration time was 10.5 days varying from two to 20 days. Twelve patients corresponding to 75% reported frequent animal contact but just seven (43.7%) came from rural areas .