Sciatica is pain, tingling, or numbness produced by an irritation of the nerve roots that lead to the sciatic nerve. Pain in the rear or leg, Burning or tingling down the leg, Weakness, numbness, or difficulty moving the leg or foot, constant pain on one side of the rear, Sciatica affects only one side of the lower body. Often, the pain extends from the lower back all the way through the back of the thigh and down through the leg. Depending on where the sciatic nerve is affected, the pain may also extend to the foot or toes.
Sciatica is generally caused by the compression of lumbar nerves or by compression of the sciatic nerve. When sciatica is caused by compression of a dorsal radix, it is considered a lumbar radiculopathy. When there is a tear in the anulus fibrosus, the nucleus pulposus may extrude through the tear and press against spinal nerves within the spinal cord, cauda equina, or exiting nerve roots, causing inflammation, numbness, or excruciating pain. Inflammation in the spinal canal can also spread to adjacent facet joints and cause lower back pain in the posterior thigh.
Diagnosed by physical examination, and the history of the symptoms. lumbar disc herniation can be diagnosed by computerised tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.The most applied diagnostic test is the straight leg raise to produce Lasègue's sign, which is considered positive if pain in the distribution of the sciatic nerve is reproduced with between 30 and 70 degrees passive flexion of the straight leg.