Occupational stress has been a long-standing concern of the health care industry. Studies indicate that health care workers have higher rates of substance abuse and suicide than other professions and elevated rates of depression and anxiety linked to job stress. In addition to psychological distress, other outcomes of job stress include burnout, absenteeism, employee intent to leave, reduced patient satisfaction, and diagnosis and treatment errors.
Beliefs about whether the institution provides high quality care may influence the perceived stress of job pressures and workload because higher quality care maybe reflected in greater support and availability of resources. Pneumococci are common inhabitants of the respiratory tract and may be isolated from the nasopharynx of 5-90% of healthy persons, depending on the population and setting. Only 5-10% of adults without children are carriers. Among school-aged children, 20-60% may be carriers. On military installations, as many as 50-60% of service personnel may be carriers. The duration of carriage varies and is generally longer in children than adults. In addition, the relationship of carriage to the development of natural immunity is poorly understood.
As a general rule, actions to reduce job stress should give top priority to organizational changes that improve working conditions. But even the most conscientious efforts to improve working conditions are unlikely to eliminate stress completely for all workers. For this reason, a combination of organizational change and stress management is often the most successful approach for reducing stress at work. Organizational Change Intervention, Team process, Multidisciplinary health care teams, Multicomponent interventions, Stress Management Intervention.