Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple motor tics (blinking, jumping, biting lips, shrugging etc.) associated with the presence of one or more phonic tics (whispering, grunting, hissing etc.), with waxing and waning course and severity. It is an inheritable disorder with no exact known cause. TS is generally diagnosed in early childhood and can extend into adulthood. The estimated prevalence of the disease ranges from 1 to 10 per 1000 children and adolescents and it is associated with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Although there is no cure for Tourette Syndrome (TS), there are treatments to help manage the tics caused by TS. Many patients with mild symptoms do not need any treatment. Psychotherapy, behavioral therapy and deep brain stimulation are sufficient in most cases. Severe and frequent tics are treated with drugs like alpha-2-adrenergic agonists (clonidine), muscle relaxants (baclofen, clonazepam) and dopamine antagonists. Surgery is useful in extreme cases when the patient does not respond to all other forms of therapy. A variety of studies and tests are being performed including genetic studies, neuroimaging studies, clinical trials, and epidemiology and clinical science to identify the exact cause of Tourette syndrome.