Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by abnormalities in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The causes of type 2 diabetes are multi-factorial and include both genetic and environmental elements that affect beta-cell function and tissue (muscle, liver, adipose tissue, pancreas) insulin sensitivity. Although there is considerable debate as to the relative contributions of beta-cell dysfunction and reduced insulin sensitivity to the pathogenesis of diabetes, it is generally agreed that both these factors play important roles.
Among the elderly, 218 (14.59%) presented diabetes and 199 (13.32%) impaired fasting glycemia, whereas adult prevalences were 2.33% and 5.64%. After multinomial analysis, diabetes remained associated, for adults, with increased waist-to-hip ratio and total cholesterol > 240 mg/dl; for elderly adults, with family history of diabetes, body-mass index of 25-29 kg/m2, body-mass index > 30 kg/m2, increased waist-to-hip ratio, low HDL-cholesterol tri glyceridemia of 200-499 mg/dl and tr iglyceridemia > 500 mg/dl.
Treatments for type 2 diabetes focus on: controlling blood sugar, achieving a healthy weight, improving activity levels. Both lifestyle changes and medical treatments can help to control the disease. Monitoring blood sugar is an essential part of diabetes treatment. People with diabetes need to monitor and record their blood sugar on a regular basis. Monitoring frequency varies.Type 2 Diabetes afflicts close to 250 million people in world today, 27 million in the United States alone. The world wide incidence of Type 2 Diabetes is increasing in epidemic proportions.