Pathophysiology: Viral gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection where inflammation of the stomach and intestines occur from a virus. It is also known as “stomach flu”. This infection may lead to watery diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, nausea or vomiting, and fever. It occurs by contact with a diseased person or by intake of contaminated food or water.Clinicians have categorized it into: Sporadic gastroenteritis, Epidemic gastroenteritis (food-borne or water-borne pathogens), and Acute gastroenteritis.
Disease Statistics: The prevalence of viral co-infection by enteric adenovirus, astrovirus, or norovirus was assessed in patients admitted to a tertiary hospital from 2001 to 2010. In Brazil, diarrhea presents higher morbidity rates and is the main cause of death in the first year of life. Serious complications, such as necrotizing enterocolitis, have been reported in children with astrovirus infections. Sporadic studies have shown the importance of these pathogens and their distribution in some regions of Brazil.
Treatment: Viral gastroenteritis is diagnosed by physical exam such as stool sample to test for virus. There are no specific medical treatments and initially it involves lot of self-care measures. Antibiotics aren’t effective against viruses. The illness may be due to parasitic or bacterial infection. Primary goal is to prevent dehydration by providing enough water and fluids to the diseased body. Food is offered in small amounts. In case of small children, food is supplied intravenously.
Research: The research study was conducted by Laboratório de Virologia, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, PR, Brazil and Infectious Diseases Discipline, Universidade Federal do Paraná, PR, Brazil.