The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Arabian Peninsula. It occupies an area about the size of the United States east of the Mississippi River. Saudi Arabia’s population is 27 million, including 8.4 million foreign residents (2010 census), and its capital city is Riyadh. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the main players in the Arab world.
Saudi Arabia’s geography is diverse, with forests, grasslands, mountain ranges and deserts. The climate varies from region to region. Temperatures can reach over 110 degrees Fahrenheit in the desert in the summer, while in the winter temperatures in the north and central parts of the country can drop below freezing. Saudi Arabia gets very little rain, only about four inches a year on average.
Scientific research and development efforts has increased in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Research aimed at research also aims at encouraging developmental research activities in the private sector, facilitating co-operation among research institutions, making advanced technologies accessible, and facilitating the resettlement and establishing of technology gardens and its business incubators.
Universities, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, and a total of 175 governmental and private organizations are responsible for maintaining and supervising research and development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi universities have 75 research centers, but they suffer from a predominance of bureaucratic regulations that limit the effectiveness how university functions performed weaken regulatory and structural frameworks. Dawid (2005) asserted that the prevalence of red-tape in university research centers creates hurdles that limit the production and publication of research papers. According to Statistics King Fahd National Library, the ratio of books published in the fields of business and management is 19% only of total books published. Scientific and technological communities in universities in the Gulf area have hefty teaching loads. The limited number of patents and scientific papers published is very small compare to other nations such as the United States and Korea. In order for the Kingdom to achieve a place among the advanced nations, it is mandatory to remove all the obstacles that hinder scientific research and development progress.