Adnexal tumors are growths that form on the organs and connective tissues around the uterus in women. Adnexal tumors are most often noncancerous (benign), but they can be cancerous (malignant).Adnexal tumors occur in the Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, Connective tissue around the ovaries or fallopian tubes. Diagnosis of adnexal tumors involves a careful physical exam, imaging tests and, sometimes, surgery. Treatment for adnexal tumors depends on the specific location and types of cells involved.
The pathophysiology is not well understood for most adnexal masses; however, some theories have been proposed. Functional cysts may be the result of variation in normal follicle formation. Mature cystic teratoma may be the result of abnormal germ cell proliferation. Endometriomas are thought to result from retrograde menstruation or coelomic metaplasia. The exact cause of epithelial neoplasms is unknown, but recent studies have suggested a complex series of molecular genetic changes is involved.
Cancer was the leading cause of death for women in 2010,and reproductive cancers accounted for 9.2% of these deaths.Although uterine cancer was the most commonly diagnosed reproductive cancer, ovarian cancer caused the greatest number of deaths. In 2010, the mortality rate from ovarian cancer was 9.5 deaths per 100,000 women . Despite the relatively high mortality rate, the risk of death due to ovarian cancer has decreased over time. Between 1974 and 2010, the rate decreased by 0.7% annually.Ovarian cancer mortality was higher than mortality from other reproductive cancers largely because most women are not diagnosed with ovarian cancer until it is at an advanced stage and the cancer has already spread beyond the ovaries. This is mainly because ovarian cancer lacks clearly identifiable early symptoms. The mortality rate for uterine cancer was 5.4 deaths per 100,000 women, making it the second deadliest form of reproductive cancer (Table 2). While uterine cancer mortality saw declines of 1.4% per year between 1974 and 2000, these declines came to an end between 2000 and 2010, when the rate increased by 0.9% annually