Aortic valve regurgitation
In a state of aortic valve regurgitation, the aortic valve doesn't close as it should. With each heartbeat, some of the blood leaks back through the aortic valve into the left ventricle. The body does not get enough blood, so the heart has to work harder to make up for it. See a picture of aortic valve regurgitation. Regurgitation is due to incompetence of the aortic valve or any disturbance of the valvular apparatus resulting in the diastolic flow of blood into the left ventricular chamber.
Longstanding, uncontrolled hypertension, Marfan syndrome, Cystic medial necrosis, Takayasu arteritis, Other spondyloarthropathies, Congenital causes - Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital cause. Rheumatic fever, Infective endocarditis, Collagen vascular diseases. The most common cause of chronic aortic regurgitation used to be rheumatic heart disease, but presently it is most commonly caused by bacterial endocarditis.
The prevalence in the Canada of any valve regurgitation disease is 2.0%. Of those with valve disease about 0.95% has Aortic valve regurgitation. The prevalence of moderate or severe Aortic valve regurgitation in patients more than 65 years old is 1.6%. It is the most common valvular heart disease of the elderly and increases with age. The prevalence is 1.9% at age 75 years and 6.5% at 85 years.