Definition: Chapare hemorrhagic fever (CHHF) is caused by Chapare virus, a single-strand RNA virus of the Arenaviridae family. Chapare virus is certainly zoonotic, or animal-borne. The limited clinical information about CHHF comes from a small, poorly described cluster of hemorrhagic fever cases in rural Bolivia. A single fatal case yielded the only clinical description and blood specimen to date.
Symptoms and Treatment: The symptoms of CHHF, as reported in the only described patient, resemble those of other South American hemorrhagic fevers, such as Argentine HF or Bolivian HF. The incubation period is unknown, but for Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is 6 to 16 days. The CHHF clinical course included: Fever, headache, articulation and muscle pain, vomiting. These symptoms were followed by deterioration with multiple hemorrhagic signs. The only described CHHF patient died 14 days after onset of symptoms. Supportive therapy is important in CHHF. This includes: maintenance of hydration, management of shock, sedation, pain relief, usual precautions for patients with bleeding disorders, transfusions. Use of convalescent plasma therapy for treatment of AHF reduces mortality significantly and anecdotal evidence shows that the antiviral drug ribavirin may also hold promise for treating AHF. Ribavirin has also been considered for preventing development of disease in people exposed to other arenaviruses.
Statistics: Disease statistics in Canada were given as the illness was characterized clinically by pyrexia, loss of body weight, bilateral, encrusted, light tan-colored ocular discharge, dehydration (as demonstrated by sunken eyes and tacky mucous membranes), ruffled fur, piloerection, lethargy, hematuria, frank external genitourinary hemorrhage (in 1 animal), and eventual moribundity followed rapidly by death. Animals were either found dead (wtLUJV N = 1; recLUJV N = 2) or euthanized when moribund (wtLUJV N = 9; recLUJV N = 8) 11–16 days PI. No sham-infected control animals (N = 6) developed any signs of clinical illness during the duration of the experiment.