Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. It may be benign. If white blood cells are found in addition to red blood cells, then it is a signal of urinary tract infection. Types: Hematuria is of two types 1. Microscopic hematuria - Small amounts of blood can be seen on light microscopy or urinanalysis. 2. Macroscopic hematuria –Gross hematuria Diagnosis: Sometimes the cause of hematuria can be elucidated solely on the basis of the medical history and urine testing, or urinalysis.
Causes Urinary tract infection with bacteria. The vast majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli, with a smaller percentage due toKlebsiella,pneumonia and Staphylococcus saprophyticus , Nephrolithiasis,stones in the kidney, bladder or ureter ,Trauma. Cancer of the kidney, prostate or bladder Other causes includes: Glomerular bleeding: eg: IgA nephropathy ("Berger's disease"), Alport syndrome, thin basement membrane disease ,Sickle cell disease.
Statistics Canada was followed up from 1974 to 1986 for 13 years. Results indicate that the 13-year cumulative incidence of urological diseases among workers who had a positive urinalysis result of microscopic hematuria at the beginning of the follow-up period (1974) was 1.3 times that of those who had a negative urinalysis result (95% confidence interval 0.6-2.8). This relative risk remained the same after adjusting for age and smoking. This indicates that there is a possibility that urinary screening for microscopic haematuria could be a useful predictor of urological disease occurrence.