Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is a disease involving inflammation of small blood vessels. It most commonly occurs in children. The inflammation causes blood vessels in the skin, intestines, kidneys, and joints to start leaking. The main symptom is a rash with numerous small bruises, which have a raised appearance, over the legs or buttocks.
Henoch-Schonlein purpura is a small vessel vacuities in which complexes of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and complement component 3 (C3) are deposited on arterioles, capillaries, and venules. As with IgA nephropathy, serum levels of IgA are high in HSP and there are identical findings on renal biopsy; however, IgA nephropathy has a predilection for young adults while HSP is more predominant among children.
A diagnosis of Henoch-Schonlein purpura is fairly easy to make if the classic rash, joint pain and gastrointestinal symptoms are present. If some of these signs and symptoms are missing, the following tests have to be done lab testes (blood and urine tests), biopsies, and imaging tests.Henoch-Schonlein purpura usually improves on its own within a month with no lasting ill effects. Bed rest, plenty of fluids and over-the-counter pain relievers may help.
In Henoch-Schonlein purpura, some of the body's small blood vessels become inflamed, which can cause bleeding in the skin, joints, abdomen and kidneys. Approximately 75% of cases occur in children 2 to 11 years of age. It is twice as prevalent in males. Symptoms tend to be milder in children under 2 years of age and worse in adults.Non-migratory arthralgias develop in 65 to 85% of younger patients with large joints commonly affected. Renal involvement occurs in 40 to 50% of patients usually within 1 to 3 months of disease onset and is more severe in children older than 8 years.