Hypotension is the medical term for low blood pressure, meaning the body isn't getting enough blood. With this condition, your heart doesn't adequately circulate blood to various regions of the body. The 'normal' blood pressure range is between 90/60 mmHg and 130/80 mmHg, so if you have hypotension, you'll have a blood pressure below 90/60 mmHg. The top number is the systolic value, which indicates how hard the blood pushes when the heart beats. The bottom number is the diastolic value, which indicates how hard the blood pushes between heart beats. Blood pressure can vary throughout the day, but hypotension generally refers to chronic low blood pressure.
Hypospadias results in a urethral opening located below the tip of the bulbous end of the penis (the glans penis). This opening may be located on the glans, along the shaft of the penis, at the pouch that contains the testicles (scrotum), or in the area between the scrotum and the anus (perineum). The farther the opening is from the tip of the glans, the more likely curvature in the penis (chordee) is present.Mild hypospadias results in a downward spray of the urine stream.Common complications of severe hypospadias include undescended testicles and inguinal hernias (i.e., located in the groin). Other complications include upper urinary tract anomalies and backflow of urine from the ureter to the bladder (vesicoureteral reflux).
Treatment involves surgery to reposition the urethral opening and, if necessary, straighten the shaft of the penis.
Three hundred seventy-seven participants from 68 countries returned completed questionnaires. In distal hypospadias (subcoronal to midshaft), the tubularised incised plate (TIP) repair is preferred by 52.9–71.0% of the participants. Meatal advancement and glanuloplasty (MAGPI) is still a preferred method in glandular hypospadias. In the repair of proximal hypospadias, the two-stage repair is preferred by 43.3–76.6%. TIP repair in proximal hypospadias is used by 0.9–16.7%. Onlay flaps and tubes are used by 11.3–29.5% of the study group. Simple plication and Nesbit's procedure are the techniques of choice in curvature up to 30°; urethral division and ventral incision of the tunica albuginea with grafting is performed by about 20% of the participants in severe chordee. The frequency of hypospadias repairs does not influence the choice of technique