In 1861, the French physician Prosper Meniere described a condition which now bears his name. Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear which causes episodes of vertigo, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), a feeling of fullness or pressure in the ear, and fluctuating hearing loss.
Endolymphatic hydrops is thought to be due to over-production or impaired absorption of endolymph. This may occur as a result of 1 or a combination of the proposed aetiological agents. However, histopathological studies of the temporal bones suggest that, although endolymphatic hydrops is a histological marker for MD, it is not directly responsible for its symptoms.
Meniere disease can begin at any age but patients typically present with symptoms between the ages of 20 and 40. Meniere syndrome in children is most often associated with congenital malformations of the inner ear.We think Meniere's disease should more properly be called Meniere's syndrome, but we will use the two terms as if they were the same.
Medical therapy can be directed toward treatment of the actual symptoms of the acute attack or directed toward prophylactic prevention of the attacks. If endolymphatic hydrops is attributable to a given disease process, that is, if it is Ménière syndrome rather than Ménière disease the first-line management is diagnosis and treatment of the primary disease (eg, thyroid disease).
Major research on disease:
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on endolymphatic sac shunt surgery.Several committees have attempted to codify the symptoms.Surgical therapy for Ménière disease is reserved for medical treatment failures and is otherwise controversial.