Peritonitis is one of the major complications of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). It is an inflammation of the peritoneum, the thin tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers most of the abdominal organs. It is majorly caused by bacterial infection either via the blood or after rupture of an abdominal organ.
The signs and symptoms of peritonitis include: Swelling and tenderness in the abdomen with pain ranging from dull aches to severe, sharp pain. Other symptom’s include-Fever and chills, Loss of appetite, Thirst, Nausea and vomiting, Less urine and Not being able to pass gas or stool.
The first primary step in treating peritonitis is determining its underlying cause. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to fight infection and medication for pain. If peritonitis is caused by peritoneal dialysis, antibiotics may be injected directly into the peritoneum. Research has shown this is more effective than injecting antibiotics into a vein. In the cases of serious damages surgical removal of tissues is required.
The overall rate of peritonitis for CAPD patients included in the NIH Registry for 1981 to 1986 varies from one episode every 8.2 to 11.2 patient months. These rates compare very favorably with the current study results of one episode every 12.9 patient months. Survival analysis of time to development of peritonitis while using the SCD 210 revealed a cumulative probability of experiencing an episode of peritonitis of 16% after 3 months and of 32% after 6 months. These results are in agreement with the NIH Registry results of 20% after 3 months and 35% after 6 months.