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Pulmonary valve stenosis is a condition characterized by obstruction to blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. This obstruction is caused by narrowing (stenosis) at one or more points from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. The most common form of pulmonary stenosis is obstruction at the valve itself, referred to as pulmonary valvar stenosis.
Patients with mild pulmonary valve stenosis are healthy, can participate in all types of physical activities and sporting events, and lead normal lives. The type of treatment required depends on the type of valve abnormality present. Most commonly, the pulmonary valve is of normal size, and the obstruction is due to fusion along the commissures or lines of valve leaflet opening. This "typical" form of pulmonary valve stenosis responds very nicely to balloon dilation. Balloon dilation valvuloplasty is performed at the time of cardiac catheterization and does not require open-heart surgery.
In Canada, the analysis on pulmonary valve stenosis got the result as the mean duration of valve implantation was 14.3 +/- 5.2 years (2-26 years). Median age at implantation was 16.7 +/- 10.3 years (range, 3 months to 53 years). Structural valve deterioration was found in 39 (97.5%) of the valves. Morphologic evidence of stenosis was found in all valves, whereas incompetence was found in 28 (70.0%). Calcification was present in 32 (80.0%) of the valves and was severe and diffuse in 22 (55.0%). Host tissue overgrowth, or pannus, was present on 39 (97.5%) of the valves and was severe in 35 (87.5%). Tears were present in 19 (47.5%) of the valves.