Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. It is a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells with accumulated genetic alterations that promote cancerous initiation, development, growth, and metastasis. cancer is treated with surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immune therapy, and targeted therapy. Cancer
chemotherapy attempts to eradicate or functionally disable tumor cells by the use of synthetic and/or natural compounds while preserving normal cells. Chemotherapeutic agents can eliminate tumor cells by direct cytotoxicity, activating host immune response, inhibiting the proliferation processes of tumor cells and inducing apoptosis. Cancer chemotherapy drugs have a high rate of failure because they usually kill only specific types of cancer cells within a tumor or the cancer cells mutate and become resistant to the chemotherapy. In addition to tumor resistance, severe organ toxicities are also an important reason for chemotherapy failure when most anticancer drugs cannot selectively kill tumor cells only.
Last date updated on June, 2014