Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare obstetric emergency in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters the mother's blood stream via the placental bed of the uterus and trigger an allergic reaction.Amniotic fluid results from entering the maternal circulation via the uterine veins, which then has either a direct effect on the lungs, or triggers an immune response in the mother.There is no particular treatment for amniotic liquid embolism, and introductory crisis administration is the same concerning some other reason for sudden maternal breakdown - with cardiovascular and respiratory revival and adjustment of the coagulopathy.
Amniotic fluid embolism is caused by fetal antigens in the amniotic fluid stimulating a cascade of endogenous immune mediators, producing a reaction similar to anaphylaxis. Biochemical mediators found in the amniotic fluid are thought to trigger the main features of anaphylactic reaction with multisystem involvement. In the national registry, 70% of the cases happened amid work, 19% were recorded amid cesarean conveyance, and 11% happened after vaginal delivery. All of the cases noted amid cesarean area had their onset not long after conveyance of the newborn child.
Overall, in the last 10 years, AFE accounted for 5.0–15.0% of all maternal deaths in developed countries (5.3% for the United Kingdom, 10.9% for Canada, 13.1% for Australia, and 13.7% for the United States), being the leading cause of maternal death in Australia, the second cause of maternal death in the United States, the third cause of maternal death in France and Poland, and the second cause of direct maternal death in the United Kingdom. In China, regional studies reported that AFE was the second cause of maternal death.