Atrioventricular canal defect is a combination of heart problems resulting in a defect in the center of the heart. The condition occurs when there's a hole between the heart's chambers and problems with the valves that regulate blood flow in the heart. The condition is often associated with Down syndrome. Atrioventricular canal defect allows extra blood to flow to the lungs. Untreated, atrioventricular canal defect can cause heart failure and high blood pressure in the lungs.
In contrast, cardiovascular relevant morbidity and mortality in Chinese population rose quickly; in particular, the age of patients is becoming younger. It is estimated in the “Report on Cardiovascular Disease in China, 2011” that there are about 230 million patients with CVD, including 200 million patients with hypertension, 7 million patients with stroke, 2 million patients with myocardial infarction, and 4.2 million patients with heart failure. There are 3 million cases of death of CVD each year, accounting for 41% in total.
Patients with incomplete atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs) present with signs and symptoms similar to those of secundum atrial septal defects (ASDs) and, as such, rarely require medical therapy. Medical therapy in patients with complete atrioventricular septal defects consists of aggressive anticongestive treatment for the signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure (CHF). The mainstays of medical therapy are furosemide (for diuresis for the volume-overloaded heart), digoxin (as a mild inotrope), and ACE inhibitors (for afterload reduction).