Cervicitis is inflammation of the cervix, which can be due to infection, irritation or injury of cells that surrounds cervix. Cervicitis generally caused by infections that are passed during sexual activity. Sexually transmitted diseases that may cause cervicitis include, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Genital herpes, Trichomoniasis, Mycoplasma and ureaplasma. Symptoms of Cervicitis include Pain during sex, Difficult, painful and frequent urination, Pale yellow vaginal discharge and Abnormal vaginal bleeding.
In reference to various prevalence studies carried out in selected populations in the developed countries, higher prevalence of genital chlamydial infection was found in the sexually active teenagers was less than 10% and patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics were 5-15%. The rate was usually found to be less than 5% in adult women during routine check-up. [Source: http://medcomhk.com/hkdvb/pdf/200003-02.pdf]
If it is not sexually transmitted, you need not go with the infection. If an infection is suspected, the main goal of treatment is to eliminate the infection and prevent from spreading to uterus and fallopian tubes. Therapeutic agents like antibiotics, antifungal medications, antiviral medications can be used for the treatment depending on the organism which causes infection.
From past several years, the major research is going on for the understanding of cervicitis. It has extended beyond the recognition of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as the prime etiologic suspects. Trichomonas vaginalis and herpes simplex virus cause cervicitis and both Mycoplasma genitalium and bacterial vaginosis have emerged as new etiologic agents. However understanding of cervicitis and its pathogenesis had advanced approach in the past 2 decades.