Craniopharyngioma is a type of brain tumor derived from pituitary gland embryonic tissue that occurs most commonly in children but also in men and women in their 50s and 60s. People may present with bitemporal inferior quadrantanopia leading to bitemporal hemianopia, as the tumor may compress the optic chiasm. Craniopharyngiomas are typically very slow growing tumors. They arise from the cells along the pituitary stalk, specifically from nests of odontogenic (tooth-forming) epithelium within the suprasellar/diencephalic region and, therefore, contain deposits of calcium, which are evident on an x-ray. Balance disorder, Dry skin, Fatigue, Fever, Headache, Hypersomnia, Lethargy, Myxedema, Nausea etc. include is symptoms.
Craniopharyngiomas are more common in China compared to Western countries and account for 16%. Craniopharyngioma is the third most common type of childhood intracranial tumor and the most common type of pediatric tumor in the hypothalamus and pituitary region, worldwide. In adults, craniopharyngioma typically occurs after the age of 60 years. With the development of novel surgical techniques and post-operative endocrine therapy, mortality and morbidity caused by craniopharyngioma have been greatly reduced, with the rate of total resection reaching up to 90%.
Treatment generally consists of subfrontal or transsphenoidal excision. Surgery using the transsphenoidal route is often performed by a joint team of ENT and neurosurgeons. Because of the location of the craniopharyngioma near the brain and skullbase, a surgical navigation system might be used to verify the position of surgical tools during the operation. Additional radiotherapy is also used if total removal is not possible.
The ongoing researches in China on craniopharyngioma include: Malignant transformation of craniopharyngioma, Analysis of ocular changes in children craniopharyngioma, All-trans retinoic acid inhibits craniopharyngioma cell growth.