Developmental disabilities are a group of conditions due to an impairment in physical, learning, language, or behavior areas. These conditions begin during the developmental period, may impact day-to-day functioning, and usually last throughout a person’s lifetime.Most common disabilities: Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, Prevasive developmental disorders, Fetal alchohol spectrum disorders, Cerebral palsy, Intellectual disability. Developmental disabilities are severe, long-term problems. They may be physical, such as blindness. They may affect mental ability, such as learning disorders. Or the problem can be both physical and mental, such as Down syndrome. The problems are usually life-long, and can affect everyday living. The main causes of developmental disabilities , Genetic or chromosomal abnormalities, Prenatal exposure to substances, Preterm birth. Genetic abnormalities cuase conditions such as down syndrome, Rett syndrome.
Treatments include physical, speech, and occupational therapy. Special education classes and psychological counseling can also help Once a child is diagnosed with a developmental disability, early intervention is critical. Treatments such as socialization exercises and behavioral therapy may be used to reinforce and support positive behavior. In addition, treatments such as speech, physical therapy or occupational therapy can improve a child's verbal, cognitive and social abilities and motor skills. Children with Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, and other IDDs can often benefit from therapeutic speech therapy, occupational therapy, and exercises to improve their gross- and fine-motor skills.
1) Attitudes toward People with Developmental Disabilities in Chinese and American Students: The Role of Cultural Values, Contact, and Knowledges .2)Parenteral reaction to the developmental disabilities in Chinese American families. 3) Genetic services and testing in China
The population of 0.8% or 1.2 million children are born with congenital disabilities in China each year. Of children with disabilities; 9% have challenges hearing; 6.2% with vision; 54.21% are intellectually challenged; 24.69 have physical challenges; and 5.91% have psychiatric problems, including autism and ADHD, both escalating in prevalence in China as in the rest of the world. 65% to 75% of the causes of these disabilities are ‘complex genetic factors’. Other causes include folic acid deficiency, iodine deficiency, inter-marriages; lack of prenatal care, accidents, poisoning, anoxia at birth and causes that are unknown.