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Heart Failure

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  • Heart failure

    Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), occurs when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.The terms chronic heart failure (CHF) or congestive cardiac failure (CCF) are often used interchangeably with congestive heart failure.Signs and symptoms commonly include shortness of breath, excessive tiredness, and leg swelling.The shortness of breath is usually worse with exercise, while lying down, and may wake the person at night.A limited ability to exercise is also a common feature.

  • Heart failure

    Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, excess alcohol use, infection, and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause.These cause heart failure by changing either the structure or the functioning of the heart.There are two main types of heart failure: heart failure due to left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure with normal ejection fraction depending on if the ability of the left ventricle to contract is affected, or the heart's ability to relax.

  • Heart failure

    Signs and Symptoms

    Heart failure symptoms are traditionally and somewhat arbitrarily divided into "left" and "right" sided, recognizing that the left and right ventricles of the heart supply different portions of the circulation. However, heart failure is not exclusively backward failure (in the part of the circulation which drains to the ventricle).

  • Heart failure

    Congestive heart failure

    Heart failure may also occur in situations of "high output," (termed "high output cardiac failure") where the ventricular systolic function is normal but the heart cannot deal with an important augmentation of blood volume.This can occur in overload situation (blood or serum infusions), kidney diseases, chronic severe anemia, beriberi (vitamin B1/thiamine deficiency), thyrotoxicosis, Paget's disease, arteriovenous fistulae, or arteriovenous malformations. Viral infections of the heart can lead to inflammation of the muscular layer of the heart and subsequently contribute to the development of heart failure.

  • Heart failure

    Statistics

    This high prevalence in these ethnic minority populations has been linked to high incidence of diabetes and hypertension. In many new immigrants to the U.S., the high prevalence of heart failure has largely been attributed to lack of preventive health care or substandard treatment.Nearly one out of every four patients (24.7%) hospitalized in the U.S. with congestive heart failure are readmitted within 30 days.Additionally, more than 50% of patients seek re-admission within 6 months after treatment and the average duration of hospital stay is 6 days.

Expert PPTs

Speaker PPTs

  • Donald silverberg
    Is correction of iron deficiency a new addition to the treatment of heart failure?
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  • Laidoudi Aicha
    Acute renal failure and uveitis, which diagnosis is most likely in internal medicine? Tinu syndrome, through two observations
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  • Ahmed Zeidan
    Effects of intravenous iron in chronic kidney disease and heart failure
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  • Bhaskar Reddy
    Persuade of prevention of renal failure in an imperfect world, is it possible in the 21st century?
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  • Yosef Yarden
    Classically, the 3’untranslated region (3’UTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3’UTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5’UTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3’UTR RNA (referred as I3’UTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3’UTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3’UTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3’UTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3’UTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3’UTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3’UTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990’s to 2000’s, world scientists found several 3’UTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3’UTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3’UTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3’UTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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  • C Peter Waegemann
    What Can We Learn from the Failure of Electronic Health Record Systems?
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    Acute renal failure after therapy with Interferon
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    Effect of sodium bicarbonate infusion in reversal of acute renal failure
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  • Ishfaq A Bukhari
    Protective Effect of Diltiazem and Fenofibrate Against Ischemia-reperfusion Induced Cardiac Arrhythmias in the Isolated Rat Heart.
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  • Martha M Sklavos
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    Acute Myocardial Infarction as First Presentation among patients with Coronary Heart Disease
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