Hypotension is the medical term for low blood pressure, meaning the body isn't getting enough blood. With this condition, your heart doesn't adequately circulate blood to various regions of the body. The 'normal' blood pressure range is between 90/60 mmHg and 130/80 mmHg, so if you have hypotension, you'll have a blood pressure below 90/60 mmHg. The top number is the systolic value, which indicates how hard the blood pushes when the heart beats. The bottom number is the diastolic value, which indicates how hard the blood pushes between heart beats. Blood pressure can vary throughout the day, but hypotension generally refers to chronic low blood pressure.
Hypospadias results in a urethral opening located below the tip of the bulbous end of the penis (the glans penis). This opening may be located on the glans, along the shaft of the penis, at the pouch that contains the testicles (scrotum), or in the area between the scrotum and the anus (perineum). The farther the opening is from the tip of the glans, the more likely curvature in the penis (chordee) is present.Mild hypospadias results in a downward spray of the urine stream.Common complications of severe hypospadias include undescended testicles and inguinal hernias (i.e., located in the groin). Other complications include upper urinary tract anomalies and backflow of urine from the ureter to the bladder (vesicoureteral reflux).
Treatment involves surgery to reposition the urethral opening and, if necessary, straighten the shaft of the penis.
An increase in penile length (from 28.1 ± 2.2 mm to 38.5 ± 2.6 mm) (P = 0.001) and penile circumference (from 35.1 ± 1.6 mm to 45.5 ± 2.2 mm) (P = 0.001) were noticed in all but four children in Group 1. The actual values for increase in penile length in the study group were, 22.0%, 35.0% and 36.0%, at postinjection months 1, 2 and 3, respectively (P = 0.01, P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively) (Figure). The actual values for increase in penile circumference in the study group were, 16.0%, 27.0% and 29.0%, at postinjection months 1, 2 and 3, respectively (P = 0.01, P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). The overall complication rates were significantly higher in Group 2 [12 children, 13.18%) compared to Group 1 (five children, 5.45%) (P = 0.03). Urethrocutaneous fistula was the most common complication in both groups (four children [4.39%] in Group 1 and seven children [7.69%] in Group 2) (P = 0.02), followed by meatal stenosis (one child [1.09%] in Group 1 and three children [3.29%] in Group 2) (P = 0.03). All children in Group 1 developed pigmentation of the genitalia, and scant pubic hair appeared in 14 of them. These side effects disappeared by the 3 months postoperation follow-up visit.
Statistics: A total of 160 patients who had been treated for STS of the upper extremities were retrospectively included. Independent prognostic factors were analyzed (primary versus recurrent tumor, tumor size, resection status, grade of malignancy, additional therapy, localization in the upper extremity). Kaplan-Meier analyses for survival rate and local control were calculated. Further outcome measures were functional results validated by the DASH score and rate of amputation. In 130 patients (81%) wide tumor excision (R0) was performed and in 19 patients (12%) an amputation was necessary. The 5-year overall survival rate was 70% and the 5-year survival rate in primary tumors was 81% whereas in recurrences 55% relapsed locally. The 10-year overall survival rate was 45% and the 5-year recurrence rate was 18% for primary STS and 43% for recurrent STS. Variance analysis revealed primary versus recurrent tumor, tumor size, resection status and grade of malignancy as independent prognostic factors. Analysis of functional r esults showed a median DASH score of 37.